In this article, we will discuss the muscle groups of the shoulder and provide evidence-based exercise prescription for these muscles. We will discuss the muscle group of the anterior deltoid, the subscapularis, the biceps femoris, the posterior scapularis, and the muscles of the shoulder, as well as the effects of moment arm size on these muscles. Also, we will discuss isolated infraspinatus atrophy, which affects the hitting shoulder.
Evidence-based exercise prescription for muscles in shoulder
To establish an Evidence-based exercise prescription for muscles in the shoulder, clinicians must first identify the specific muscle groups that are affected by shoulder pain. Generally, patients with SIS have abnormal muscle activation patterns and are unable to remain as passive as healthy control subjects. In a study by Ellsworth et al., they found that pathological participants had difficulty relaxing the upper trapezius and supraspinatus.
Effects of moment arm size on muscles in shoulder
The current study reviewed experimentally measured muscle moment arms for various shoulder motions. It found that the anterior and middle deltoid muscles had the greatest elevator leverage and were the most significant flexors and elevators during scapular plane abduction and flexion. However, the posterior deltoid had the greatest extensor lever and the least prominent flexor lever. The results demonstrate the importance of muscle size in shoulder joint function and may also be useful for computational modeling of the upper limb.
Isolated infraspinatus atrophy affects the hitting shoulder
Isolated infraspinatal atrophy (IIA) is a common condition among overhead activity athletes, and it affects the shoulder by impairing afferent proprioceptive information. In a recent study, we assessed the activity patterns of relevant shoulder girdle muscles in volleyball players with and without IIA, as well as in healthy volleyball players.
Subscapularis is internal rotator
The subscapularis is one of the largest and strongest of the rotator cuff muscles. Acute injuries to this muscle can cause intense pain and interfere with shoulder movements. The subscapularis is also associated with glenohumeral dislocation, and tendon tears. Larger multi-tendon tears of the rotator cuff are often associated with subscapularis tendon tears.
Teres minor is external rotator
The teres minor is an external rotator of the shoulder. It is located on the outside of the shoulder joint and shares innervation with the deltoid muscle and the posterior circumflex humeral artery. It is one of the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff. This group of muscles helps stabilize and move the shoulder joint and is an important part of athletic movement. The muscles are vital to shoulder health and movement, and are responsible for a variety of movements.
Biceps is an adductor
The biceps is an adductor in the shoulder muscles. It is a two-headed muscle that originates at the top of the shoulder blade and meets at the elbow. The triceps muscle runs along the back of the upper arm from the shoulder to the elbow. The two main types of movements performed by the biceps are flexion and extension. Flexion involves moving the arm from side-to-side over the head, and extension involves moving the arm outward and parallel to the floor.
Anterior deltoid is an external rotation agonist
The anterior deltoid is an external rotation antagonist in the shoulder. Its fibers pass vertically, obliquely, and converge toward the insertion. This action limits the range of motion of the scapula. The deltoid, pectoralis major, and trapezius are the main arm adductors.