Lower Back Muscles – The Iliopsoas, Psoas, and Multifidus

muscles lower back

In this article we will discuss the muscles that make up the lower back. The Iliopsoas and Psoas are both attached to the bottom vertebrae of the back. If either one is injured, pain will be felt in the lower back. Psoas problems can be caused by a sprain or a muscle strain.


In this study, physical performance of the back extensors was assessed before and after treatment. This included the repeated arch-up test and the modified Biering-Sorensen test, both of which evaluate the muscles’ static and dynamic endurance. In addition, the participants performed a low-intensity warm-up phase which included stretches and strolling at a self-determined speed. The tests were performed in random order, with a 15-minute interval between tests.

Although the strength of lumbar extensor muscles decreases with age, this decline is not linear. Older adults show more severe declines than younger adults. In the younger group, age and gender were the only variables associated with lumbar extensor muscle strength. However, both age and gender were negatively related to muscle strength in the older group.


The obliques are a pair of muscles in the lower back that run diagonally from the waist to the pelvis. They are covered with fanlike fibers and help give shape to the waist. There are two types of obliques: the internal oblique and the external oblique. The internal oblique is deep in the lower back, while the external oblique is broad and lies closer to the skin.

The internal oblique is a strong trunk rotator. Most people think of oblique muscles as frontal muscles, but the group also stretches across the lower back. The transversus abdominis is the deepest layer of abdominal muscles, and it plays an important role in breathing and compressing the internal organs.


The Iliopsoas muscles are often the source of low back pain, but they are not well understood. When they get overworked, the muscle can spasm and tears, causing pain and weakness. Tight iliopsoas muscles also pull the spine out of alignment and can lead to disc herniation.

The Iliopsoas muscles are found inside the pelvis and sacrum. They connect to multiple joints and form a triangle at the front of the pelvis. They perform a variety of jobs, including lifting the thigh and supporting the back.


The Multifidus is a small group of muscles located in the lumbar region of the back. They function at a deeper level than the superficial muscles of the back and provide two-thirds of the back’s total muscular stability. Their attachment to the spinal column allows them to perform gross and segmental movements.

The Multifidus originates from the spinous process of the lumbar vertebrae. Its fascicles attach to the ilium, sacrum, and inferior lumbar transverse process. They provide segmental control and are responsible for ensuring that you maintain your balance and posture.

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