Muscles of the Back

muscles of the back

There are four main types of muscles in the back: superficial, intermediate, and deep. They help mobilize and stabilize the trunk, and connect the shoulders and pelvis to the spine. The trapezius muscle group is made up of upper, middle, and lower trapezii, and originates from the cervical spine, the skull, and the spinous processes. Combined, these muscles help the spine move freely and support the torso and limbs.

Intrinsic back muscles

The intrinsic back muscles are located in the deep layer of the human back, between the spinal nerves and the posterior rami of the extrinsic muscles. The extrinsic back muscles include the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and rhomboid major and minor. They move the upper extremity and control the humerus and scapula.

Superficial back muscles

The superficial back is comprised of a group of dorsal muscles and fascia. The superficial back also contains nerves, arteries, and veins. The superficial muscles originated from the anterior part of the trunk and migrated to the posterior region. The superficial muscles are derived from the epaxial and hypaxial divisions of the myotomes. In this way, they receive innervation from spinal nerves but do not have a primary action on the vertebral column.

Intermediate back muscles

The three main groups of back muscles are the superficial, deep, and intermediate. They are responsible for stabilizing the spine and attaching the shoulders and pelvis to the trunk. Intermediate back muscles include the serratus anterior superior and inferior, which originate from the vertebral column. The serratus posterior superior muscle is believed to have a respiratory function, as it helps to elevate the ribcage. The deep muscles also move the head and spine.

Deep back muscles

The deep back muscles are comprised of two types of muscle: superficial and deep. The superficial ones are referred to as spinotransversales. They originate from the spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T3 and extend posterolaterally to the ribs of the same and lower vertebral levels. The deep back muscles are derived from the intrinsic muscle groups. Both types of muscle receive innervation from dorsal and ventral rami.

Multifidus muscles

The multifidus muscles of the back are a very important part of the core muscles of the back and are a vital component of any effective core stabilization program. The main goal of core stabilization exercises is to increase the area of multifidus cross section while simultaneously reducing low back pain. The multifidus fiber layer contributes strength to the spine through both its superficial and deep layers. EMS is also effective at relieving back pain because of its low impact and strain, as it does not use weights.

Latissimus dorsi

The Latissimus dorsis muscle of the back is one of the largest in the body, spanning from the shoulder blade to the lower back in a triangle-shaped pattern. Injuries to the latissimus dorsi can cause back and arm pain. Pain from these muscles may be indicative of a more serious medical condition. Here are some common latissimus dorsi injuries.

Erector spinae

The erector spinae are a dense, thick group of muscles located along the spine. People with back pain frequently ignore them in favor of other muscles that are easier to see and feel. However, regular training of these muscles can improve your back’s strength, help you move heavier weights, and help your overall muscle building program. Listed below are some benefits of working out the erector spinae.

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