The Functions of the Muscles of the Back

muscles of the back

There are three main types of muscles in the back. They are called the superficial, the interosseous, and the deep. The deep muscles are associated with movements of the vertebral column, controlling posture, and are covered by deep fascia, which plays a key role in muscle organisation. These three layers are further subdivided into the Superficial, Intermediate, and Deep. The superficial muscles are located on the posterolateral aspect of the neck, and cover the deeper neck muscles.

Intrinsic muscles

The intrinsic muscles of the back are the deeper back muscles. They are innervated by spinal nerves and regulate vertebral movement. The back muscles are divided into three main groups: superficial, intermediate, and deep. Each of these groups is responsible for different functions, including maintaining posture and movement. In addition to being responsible for maintaining posture and movement, the intrinsic muscles of the back also play a role in the regulation of the head and neck.

The intrinsic muscles of the back are located in the thoracolumbar region. They lie underneath the thoracolumbar fascia. These muscles are responsible for movement of the thoracic cage and shoulder joints. Although there are superficial and intermediate back muscles, only the intrinsic muscles are considered true back muscles. These muscles include the erector spinae and splenius cervicis.


There are several layers of muscles in the back, including superficial, intermediate, and deep. Several groups of muscles function independently and contribute to the movement of different parts of the body, including the spine and limbs. Some muscles have multiple functions, such as those in the abdominal region, which support the back and torso. However, there are some groups of muscles that are common to all back muscles. The following article will briefly describe the functions of each group of muscles.

The sternocleidomastoid muscle is the primary source of rotation of the cervical spine. It also acts to raise the sternum and rotate the neck. The anterior and middle scalene muscles help the neck bend, and the spinalis and iliocostalis assist in the extension of the neck. These muscles all originate in the back, and many of the neck muscles have their origins in the back. In addition, the axial muscles of the spinal column help support the vertebrae.

Nerve supply

The spinal nerves that innervate the muscles of the back are divided into a variety of groups. The multifidus muscle, for example, is supplied by the medial branches of spinal nerves. Its function is to stabilize vertebrae during motions of the spine. Bilateral contraction of the multifidus produces extension at all levels, while unilateral contraction produces ipsilateral flexion and contralateral rotation of the vertebrae.

The interspinales muscle, which connects adjacent spinous processes in the spinal column, is supplied by the posterior rami of spinal nerves. The muscle receives blood from the vertebral artery and the posterior intercostal arteries. The interspinales and the lateral sacral arteries provide blood to the muscles of the back. The rotatores are small, deep muscles that provide continuous biofeedback to the antigravity muscles.

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