The Muscles of the Back

muscles of the back

The muscles of the back can be grouped into two main groups. The first group is the extrinsic muscles, such as the Trapezius, and the second group includes the intrinsic muscles. These muscles receive innervation from the anterior ventral rami of the cervical spinal nerves. The trapezius muscle receives its supply from the accessory nerve (CN XI). The descending part of the muscle originates from the medial third of the superior nuchal line, courses inferiorly, and inserts onto the lateral third of the clavi.


The trapezius muscle is a triangular muscle located in the back of the neck. The upper and lower bundles attach to the scapular spine and form a triangular force field. The upper part of the triangle extends up to the acromion. The lower part of the muscle runs along the lower border of the scapula. The triangle grows larger when the arm is bent forward at the shoulder joint.

The muscles of the back are essential for movement and static support. They support the vertebrae and maintain the natural curve of the spine. Without these muscles, spinal movements would not be possible.

Rhomboid major

The Rhomboid major muscles are the anchor points for the shoulder blades, providing support for the upper back. These muscles are also responsible for maintaining the posture of the shoulders and help control back and neck pain. They are innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve, which helps keep the scapula attached to the ribcage.

The Rhomboid major is a large quadrilateral muscle that originates from the thoracic spine and inserts at the medial border of the scapula. It originates on the spinous processes of vertebrae C7 and T5, and it inserts on the medial border of the scapulum. The rhomboid action brings the shoulder blades closer together and raises them towards the thorax.

Levator scapulae

The levator scapulae muscles are responsible for lifting the shoulders and rotating the scapula downward. They are supplied by a nerve from the cervical spine. They are often overactive, which can lead to shoulder pathology and rotator cuff damage. They may also contribute to neck and shoulder pain.

This muscle is located on the back of the shoulder and is vascularized by the vertebral artery and the transverse cervical artery. The levator scapulae muscles are involved in elevating the scapula and are also involved in glenoid cavity inferior rotation.


Back pain often begins in the iliopsoas muscles. While the muscles may not be visible or painful in and of themselves, they often contribute to back pain and are often overlooked. During a back pain episode, pain from the iliopsoas may spread to the rest of the back, the gluteal area, and the hip area.

The iliopsoas is a group of muscles located near the spine and pelvis. A muscle can be out of balance when its relationship with its neighboring muscles is out of balance. This may result in an unbalanced posture or pain patterns.

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